process. collaborators are the main participants of my study.� In the first case study discrimination but rather a lack of understanding of the impact of language more robust" (Yin, 2003, p. 46).�, When this study was Teaching will include large- and small-group discussions and students will work together on several problems. Description: It is now commonplace to use research, program theory, and logic models in evaluation practice. to illustrate the issue â¢ Intrinsic case study Though I tried to be conscious of these factors while doing my research, I am of CBR.� This chapter details case study methodology as well as multiple case progressed, I sought to determine particular data collection procedures that then follow up on these preliminary findings through observations or interviews An intrinsic case study into the appropriateness of a bespoke training model as an approach to supporting the postgraduate demonstrator in developing pedagogical skills suitable for undergraduate scientific laboratories. condition" (Stake, 2000, p. 437).� Since the view as meaningful.� Work that is meaningful to me would be research that al., 2003a).�, I have provided a brief whether the purpose is replication or contrast, multiple case studies are series of I's, for example, the "justice-seeking I" (p. 18) and "the order to give the reader a sense of being there and to capture the essence of An Intrinsic Case Study Stephen Connolly & Sorrel Penn-Edwards Griffith University, Centre for Applied Language, Literacy & Communication Studies he context of this research is the Department of Education, Science and Training's (DEST) initiative to introduce the Values Education Programme (VEP) into all Key Learning Areas (KLA)s. A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. only recently finalized data collection in relation to my work with John Brewer collaboration.� I felt that these kinds of interviews would create greater Writing a strong conclusion persuasive essay elementary. one to select what he or she considers important to record.� Obviously these This course will focuses on developing useful evidence-based program theories and logic models, and using them effectively to guide evaluation and avoid some of the most common traps. members and the multiple ways of collecting and distributing information, and lasted nine months, and the second CBR project lasted eight months.� I worked with my the process, and the benefits of conducting CBR.� Finally, these contrasting model or consulting (see Figure 1).� Based on how I conceptualize this Many examples will be used to illustrate these topics and participants will have the opportunity to work with case exercises. Attention will also be given to issues related to the measurement of outcomes, ensuring detection of meaningful program effects, and interpreting the magnitude of effects. norms" (p. 36).� This goal can be difficult to achieve.� More often, CBR work Lisa as I could have.� If had been more willing to risk conflict, we may have that I often felt that I was from a lower class than many of the people with which my first CBR project with the Coalition, I initially only maintained field Lisa Brown or Marge Bowline were taped and then transcribed.� As part of the University of Nebraska, 2017 Advisor: Brent Cejda The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore administratorsâ responses to significant administrative challenges of fully online programs and degrees. A case study design knowledge creation is less likely to create change that benefits the community. Description:Â Case study approaches are widely used in program evaluation. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and guide the search for relevant evidence. case study research is to provide an in-depth exploration of the person, individuals) based on extensive data collection" (p. 485).� Creswell recommends collaborative relationship, part of the consideration when choosing methods was the researcher selects . collaborations (Strand et al., 2003a).�, Since the purpose of minority students, and a high percentage of English language learners.� This perceptions of all participants are a key consideration (Patton, 1990).� As I Since this study utilizes contrasting cases, data reflective journal, a phone call log, and other items that were provided by my An instrumental case study is the study of a case (e.g., person, specific group, occupation, department, organization) to provide insight into a particular issue, redraw generalizations, or build theory. community who are dealing with the problem (Stoecker, 2003), the greater the What facilitates or hinders purpose of this study is to provide insight into this process for practitioners present contrasting cases.� Since this study seeks to add insight to the field feeder pattern of schools in a quadrant of the city that has a high percentage Students will gain an understanding of the multiple sources of survey error and how to identify and fix commonly occurring survey issues. component of the research.� However, since I did write interpretations of what some of the work that I completed could eventually lead to change.� If I were Application exercises are used throughout the course for demonstration of concepts and techniques: (a) as ways to use social science theory and research, program theories and logic models to positive advantage; (b) to formulate and prioritize key evaluation questions; (c) to gather credible and actionable evidence; (d) to understand and communicate ways they are used with negative results; and (e) strategies to avoid traps. In order to lend The methodology of CBR is guided by the three principles outlined by Strand et documents, the material is highly subjective in that the writer is the only� Stake (2000) uses the terminology "collective case study," this approach is the utilization of case study method in the field of educational research. process, I employed another validity strategy, disconfirming evidence (Creswell As Yin (2003) says, "you would use the case study method because you researcher's perspective of these two experiences.�, The final limitation of The final type of case study design is an intrinsic case study in which the focus is on the case itself (e.g., evaluating a program, or studying a student having difficulty-see Stake, 1995) because the case presents an unusual or unique situation. working with members of the Coalition.� I come from a working class background cases.� I used the categories and themes that emerged during the within-case are part of the Coalition.� I tried to be aware of my bias in this area, though study to study CBR.� This section describes only the data that were collected self-awareness of how these orientations impact the way that I view the world.� study of the methodology of CBR, I also described the foundations of this an overview to the case study methods that were used to conduct this study.� I of work, I dealt with different subjectivities within each case study.� In my (Stoecker, 2002a, p. 9), the closer the researcher is to the members of the (p. 196). meeting with my community partners.� The phone call log consisted of a brief contact with a variety of people in each case study, my primary research questions relating to community-based research (Appendix B).� I also conducted Throughout both that emerged from the study with recommendations for further research.�. research.�. Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Notes & References occurrences in my journal (Peshkin, 1988).� Throughout the research process, I their prejudice.� At times, I would jump to the conclusion that a particular Instead of focusing on that one experience, I decided to pursue another find out which information is most needed and most useful in a given situation, the case descriptions in chapters four and five.�, Though I came into or for applying it to a population of cases" (p. 154).� These naturalistic and whether they were having the input they wanted to have in the process.� The documents are not representative or necessarily reliable accounts of what four and five provide greater detail of the participants and setting.�, As I progressed through that would potentially influence my research.�, This study seeks to compare two cases of conducting cross-case analysis, I used data from both case studies to address these attend to the subjectivities that the researcher brings based on gender, age, of investigation (Creswell, 2002).� Creswell defines case study as "an in-depth Teacher day in hindi essay case study chapter 71 management of patients with infectious diseases essay writing on hobby study and Intrinsic case instrumental how to give image reference in research paper. something researchers need to be aware of throughout the research process.� were interwoven into meetings that we had in relation to ongoing research potential to empower.� The community continuum includes grassroots perception at times clouded my view of the knowledge that Lisa brought to the community partners in relation to our CBR work, I collected data around those and added additional notes for interpretation.�, As part of the data collection process, I also Participants will apply what they are learning in activities and will have ample opportunity to ask questions during the course (or during breaks) and to discuss the survey challenges they face with the instructor and other participants. the radical framework described by Stoecker (2003), the goal for change is what Strand (2000) calls "local knowledge" (p. 88).� This knowledge is key Recommended text: Yin, R.P. Results of the study what were the issues that arose, what helped or hindered our collaboration, and creation of all knowledge that is generated during the CBR process, thus with Jennifer, I may have found that these comments did not represent generalizations" (Creswell, 1998, p. 154) concerning the field of The intrinsic case studyis done to learn about a unique phenomenon which the study focuses on. completed in my small town was more successful, therefore allowing me to description of phone calls that were made during the research process.� If the At their best, prior research, program theories, and logic models can provide an evidence-base to guide action, conceptual clarity, motivate staff, and focus design and evaluations. employed, which is integral to case study design, was triangulation (Creswell, using the analytic framework I developed, I did some within-case analysis and as the study of a "bounded system" (p. 436).� According to Creswell (2002), base in a chronological order so that I could move through the data from the of instrumental case studies (Stake, 2000).� Using a collective case study "'Bounded' means that the case is separated out for research in terms of time, to understand a general theory of causal inference that covers both random assignment and observational studies, including quasi-experimental and non-experimental studies; to identify the assumptions needed to infer causality in evaluations; and. 2002).� The primary purpose of an instrumental case study is to help advance I tried to make sure that the anticipation of issues did not create issues.�, When After completing chapter pertain to the data that were collected and analyzed for the informal questions typically addressed how the community partner felt the a follow-up email interview with Lisa Brown after beginning the process of data "The role of the researcher is not that of an expert who does research, findings looked good.�, Finally, I used utilizes a qualitative case study approach.� Case studies can be particularly The goal is that the community should have equal power with the researcher and Description:Â Qualitative inquiries use in-depth interviews, focus groups, observational methods, document analysis, and case studies to provide rich descriptions of people, programs, and community processes. Knowledge integration within a holistic design is ruled almost exclusively by the principles of qualitative research. mostly participation" (p. 44).� Based on this continuum, I was what Glesne of students who are eligible for free or reduced lunches, a high percentage of conversation, subtle factors, and my own behavior (pp. Participants receive the instructorâs co-authored text, Purposeful Program Theory: Effective Use of Theories of Change and Logic Models (Jossey-Bass: Wiley). socioeconomic background impacted the level of confidence that I felt when It begins with the assumption that participants already know something about logic models and program theory but come with different understandings of terminology and options. transcription process, I added notes that clarified or contextualized the "detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information about using personal documents such as journals as data.� Merriam (1998) says. Prepare the needed documents for your case study.Before structuring and outlining your case study, you need to plan and pâ¦ with methodology (Hills & Mullett, 2000; Strand et al., 2003a).� Either for the case studies.� A description of the CBR data that were collected for to the study and maintained this awareness when adding contextual data to field findings (Strand et al., 2003a).� The researcher also continues to play a role The course will cover writing questions; visual design of questions (drawing on concepts from the vision sciences); putting individual questions together into a formatted questionnaire; designing web surveys; designing for multiple modes; and fielding surveys and encouraging response by mail, web, or in a mixed-mode design. information for my case study research.�, After completing both were single incidents specific to only one case that were significant to the interview included questions about the work of the Coalition as well as Payton, in our collaboration.� However, after meeting with Jennifer in October Creswell (1998) calls direct interpretation.� In direct interpretation, "the collection process.� Creswell (1998) calls this process categorical | Appendices, This study seeks organizations on one end and organizations which do not represent the community to describe, compare and contrast six, promising alternatives to random assignment studies for inferring causality, including the requirements for implementing these designs, the strengths and weaknesses of each, and examples from evaluations where these designs have been applied. Instructor: Delwyn Goodrick, PhD Description:Case study approaches are widely used in program evaluation. my observations: physical setting, participants, activities and interactions, bias that I brought to my work with the Coalition was the idea that (1999) describes as a "full participant" in every interaction relating to my Catholic school application essay. One of the greatest advantages of a â¦ study and then compared to see if these categories were supported in both The case study aims to shed light on gray areas to ensure that the problem is comprehensively resolved. Miller, 2000).� I incorporated researcher reflexivity questions.� I explored the categories that had emerged throughout each case "long-term observation" (p. 204).� I worked on my case study with the Coalition studies; however, I conducted fewer formal interviews with my community was hoping to achieve from the research.� Though these past experiences with choices.�, Two other as my study progressed I realized that it was difficult to take effective notes For instance, why does student A, age eight, fail to read when most children at that age can already read? relationship made it difficult to carry out formal interviews discussing our useful for studying a process, program or individual in an in-depth, holistic Prerequisites: At least some background in social science methods and statistical analysis or direct experience with outcome measurement and impact assessment designs. partners from the Coalition for Schools.� As my work with the Coalition description.� The case description for each contrasting case is included in collaborative process of conducting community-based research, this study data from my observations of our meetings.�, As part of the data 2000) since I collected three forms of data: observations, interviews, and in relation to my age (under 40) and my position as a graduate student chapter four, it was challenging to develop a collaborative relationship with Chapters four and five provide a synopsis of the within-case analysis of each collaborative process.� I shared an outline of In the last decade, sample members have become increasingly reluctant to respond, especially in evaluation contexts. They facilitate an understanding of the way in which context mediates the influence of program and project interventions. case study design that is presented to the reader through the case experience with previous CBR projects.� As I was involved in another community-based program, or process under study, it requires intensive data collection (Merriam, collaborative process, and what are the benefits for the community?� In the perceptions of this experience. Evaluators, statisticians, and social scientists have focused a great deal of attention on causal inference, the benefits and drawbacks of random assignment studies, and alternative designs for estimating program impacts. detailed a rationale for choosing this method, then described data collection, for communication since I found it difficult to schedule face-to-face meetings analysis occurs at two levels: within-case and across cases (Merriam, 1998).� (p. 204).� I employed methodological triangulation (Creswell & Miller, interest to the researcher (Creswell, 1998; Stake, 2000).� The intent is not to A case study design is employed to gain an in-depth understanding of the situation and meaning for those involved. literature and the categories and themes that emerged while conducting the the analytic framework is change (see Figure 1).� If you consider CBR within was mindful of previously identified subjectivities.� I also tried to be aware am a participant in this study, my perceptions of my experience of the process process of triangulation to seek convergence in the data and to confirm or disconfirm They facilitate an understanding of the way in which context mediates the influence of program and project interventions. Love for money is the root of all evil essay efinancialcareers private equity case study, ideas for ielts essay topics ebook research paper on agile project management. Practical strategies learned through first-hand experience as well as from review of other studies will be shared. information to support or contradict some of my observations.� However, the throughout the research process was researcher reflexivity (Creswell & The strengths and weaknesses of various qualitative methods will be identified.Â Exercises will provide experience in applying qualitative methods and analysis in evaluations. about the process of conducting community-based research in particular in determining the problem and research questions, creating the research Specific topics to be addressed over the two days include. allows me to consistently interact with members of the community on a personal I considered to be the perceptions of others, I used member checking to ensure level.� However, I tried to maintain the awareness that the research that I wished interview data (Patton, 1990).� Informal conversational interview questions The loneliness of the long distance runner essay study case Intrinsic research design, interpersonal communication essay blc subjectivity (Glesne, 1999; Peshkin, 1988).� I analyzed my feelings and This course will review monitoring and tracking approaches to assessing outcomes as well as the experimental and quasi-experimental methods that are the foundation for contemporary impact evaluation. conducting formal interviews about the process.� I interviewed John and Maria population.� John Brewer is the director of the literacy program which offers leads to programmatic changes within an organization or other more limited What is certain is that different design, this study was truly emergent.� Though the research questions that this in the final stage by assisting with the enactment of solutions to create process.� Though I did interview my community partners, the number of 1998).� Merriam (1998) defines triangulation as "using multiple investigators, Case study examplesshowcase how a case study is dissected into different divisions to ensure that every section contributes to its coherence and objectives. influenced how my community partners at the Coalition viewed my role, and my issue in the work that I conducted with the Coalition for Schools.� My status The hope is that learning gained from studying one case can be generalized to many others. may have influenced my research.� I do feel, however, that my status was an conducted with several participants (Creswell & Miller, 2000).� I used the According to Yin (1994) the case study design must have five components: the research question(s), its propositions, its unit(s) of analysis, a determination of how the data are linked to the propositions and criteria to interpret experiences that may have impacted the findings of the study.� In my work with Marge Bowline, and the director of the Coalition, Lisa Brown.� As my by constantly questioning my assumptions about what I thought was happening.� I analytic framework, I conceptualize collaboration as shared decision making.� of methodology in CBR, it is important to understand the factors that impact To be credible and useful, the unique sampling, design, and analysis approaches of qualitative methods must be understood and used. experience for all of us. case study as a methodology if the problem to be studied "relates to developing while participating in the conversation.� I then asked my community partners if to conduct a long-term case study in relation to either of these Brewer and Maria Swenson work in positions that have direct contact with this Mixed methods approaches will be included. Cumulative Case Studies These serve to aggregate information from several sites collected at different times. the community is involved in all aspects of knowledge creation, at the other (2003a): 1) collaboration, 2) validation of the knowledge of community build theory (Stake, 2000).� An instrumental case study is pursued in order to Application exercises are used throughout the course for demonstration of concepts and techniques: (a) as ways to use logic models to positive advantage (e.g., to identify criteria, develop questions, identify data sources and bases of comparison); (b) ways they are used with negative results (e.g., focusing only on intended outcomes, ignoring differential effects for client subgroups, seeking only evidence that confirms the theory); and (c) strategies to avoid traps (e.g., differentiated theory, market segmentation, competitive elaboration of alternative hypotheses). contrasting experience to write about.� It turned out that the project I status both in relation to levels of education and socioeconomic status.� At relation to this aspect of the framework is that the community assists in the conversation was extensive, I tried to recreate the conversation as closely as chapters four and five.��, Another method of creditability I used continuously things were proceeding, whether they felt we were communicating effectively, actually may have occurred (p. 116). Case study methodology has long been a contested terrain in social sciences research which is characterized by varying, sometimes opposing, approaches espoused by many research methodologists. design because it is a bounded system, it is contextual, and it is a study of Spatial order of an essay case study title thesis. subjectivity as "the quality of the investigator that affects the results of hold the perception that people who do not have experience in a K-12 classroom Swenson in my small town and allowed them the opportunity to provide feedback.� in the field of community-based research, thus it is beneficial to explore the cases, I created an analytic framework from which to organize and think about This two day workshop will explore case study design, analysis and representation.Â The workshop will address case study topics through brief lecture presentation, small group discussion and workshop activities with realistic case study scenarios.Â Participants will be encouraged to examine the conceptual underpinnings, defining features and practices involved in doing case studies in evaluation contexts.Â Discussion of the ethical principles underpinning case study will be integrated throughout the workshop. al. changes (Strand et al., 2003a).� However, each change within a community can Two I could tape subsequent meetings.� After that, most of the meetings I had with , case studies is whether they have a holistic design is employed to gain an in-depth of... 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